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The name "New England" was officially sanctioned on November 3, 1620 when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint stock company established to colonize and govern the region.In December 1620, the permanent settlement of Plymouth Colony was established by the Pilgrims, English Puritan separatists who arrived on the Mayflower.He was banished from Massachusetts for his theological views and led a group south to found Providence in 1636.It merged with other settlements to form the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, which became a haven for Baptists, Quakers, Jews, and others, including Anne Hutchinson who had been banished during the Antinomian Controversy.Manufacturing in the United States began to shift south and west during the 20th century, and New England experienced a sustained period of economic decline and deindustrialization.By the beginning of the 21st century, however, the region had become a center for technology, weapons manufacturing, scientific research, and financial services.The Penobscots were settled along the Penobscot River in Maine.The Wampanoags occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks were in Western Massachusetts.
By the 1840s, the region was the center of the American anti-slavery movement, and was the leading force in American literature and higher education.
The Puritans created a deeply religious, socially tight-knit, and politically innovative culture that still influences the modern United States.
Roger Williams preached religious toleration, separation of Church and State, and a complete break with the Church of England.
It was at the center of the Industrial Revolution in the United States, with many textile mills and machine shops operating by 1830, and was the manufacturing center of the entire United States for much of that century.
It played an important role during and after the American Civil War as a fervent intellectual, political, and cultural promoter of abolitionism and civil rights.
The Virginia Company of London successfully established the Jamestown Colony in Virginia in 1607.